List of Medical Studies Used for the Strainblazer Algorithm

The Strainblazer algorithm is based on our careful evaluation of hundreds of cannabis studies, most of which we encounter regularly while writing about the use of cannabis in holistic health. The filtering for most medical conditions is based on the findings of researchers, and not on made up facts.

Our mission is to bring real cannabis science to light and help you find the best possible strain for your condition (or symptom) with as little effort as possible from your side. If you’d like to find out more about how we recommend strains, please review the studies below.


Cuttler C, Spradlin A, McLaughlin RJ; A naturalistic examination of the perceived effects of cannabis on negative affect; Journal of Affective Disorders; April 2018; 235

Bossong MG, van Hell HH, Jager G, Kahn RS, Ramsey NF, Jansma JM; The endocannabinoid system and emotional processing: a pharmacological fMRI study with ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol; European Neuropsychopharmacology; December 2013; 23(12):1687-97.

Denson TF, Earleywine M; Decreased depression in marijuana users; Addictive Behaviors; April 2006; 31(4):738-42.


Loflin M, Earleywine M, De Leo J, Hobkirk A; Subtypes of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and cannabis use; Substance Use and Misuse; March 2014;49(4):427-34

Milz E , Grotenhermen F; Successful Therapy of Treatment Resistant Adult Adhd With Cannabis: Experience From a Medical Practice With 30 Patients; Abstract book of the Cannabinoid Conference 2015, September 2015, Sestri Levante, Italy, page 85.

Mitchell JT, Sweitzer MM, Tunno AM, Kollins SH, McClernon FJ; “I Use Weed for My ADHD”: A Qualitative Analysis of Online Forum Discussions on Cannabis Use and ADHD; May 2016; 11(5):e0156614

Brain Injury

Lopez-Rodriguez AB, Siopi E, Finn DP, Marchand-Leroux C, Garcia-Segura LM, Jafarian-Tehrani M, Viveros MP; CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptor antagonists prevent minocycline-induced neuroprotection following traumatic brain injury in mice; Cerebral Cortex; January 2015; 25(1):35-45

Pazos MR, Cinquina V, Gómez A, Layunta R, Santos M, Fernández-Ruiz J, Martínez-Orgado J; Cannabidiol administration after hypoxia–ischemia to newborn rats reduces long-term brain injury and restores neurobehavioral function; Neuropharmacology; October 2012; 63(5):776-83

Mechoulam R, Panikashvili D, Shohami E; Cannabinoids and brain injury: therapeutic implications; Trends In Molecular Medicine; February 2001; 8(2):58-61

Ceprián M, Jiménez-Sánchez L, Vargas C, Barata L, Hind W, Martínez-Orgado J; Cannabidiol reduces brain damage and improves functional recovery in a neonatal rat model of arterial ischemic stroke; Neuropharmacology; April 2017; 116:151-159


Manzanares J, Julian M, Carrascosa A; Role of the Cannabinoid System in Pain Control and Therapeutic Implications for the Management of Acute and Chronic Pain Episodes; Current Neuropharmacology; July 2006; 4(3): 239–257

Xiong W, Cui T, Cheng K, Yang F, Chen SR, Willenbring D, Guan Y, Pan HL, Ren K, Xu Y, Zhang L; Cannabinoids suppress inflammatory and neuropathic pain by targeting α3 glycine receptors; Journal of Experimental Medicine; June 2012; 209(6):1121-34

Johnson JR, Burnell-Nugent M, Lossignol D, Ganae-Motan ED, Potts R, Fallon MT; Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of THC:CBD extract and THC extract in patients with intractable cancer-related pain; Journal Of Pain and Symptom Management; February 2010; 39(2):167-79

Ware MA, Wang T, Shapiro S, Robinson A, Ducruet T, Huynh T, Gamsa A, Bennett GJ, Collet JP; Smoked cannabis for chronic neuropathic pain: a randomized controlled trial; CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal; October 2010; 182(14):E694-701

Alzheimer’s Disease

Ahmed A, van der Marck MA, van den Elsen G, Olde Rikkert M; Cannabinoids in late-onset Alzheimer’s disease; American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics; March 2015; 97(6):597-606

Cao C, Li Y, Liu H, Bai G, Mayl J, Lin X, Sutherland K, Nabar N, Cai J; The potential therapeutic effects of THC on Alzheimer’s disease; Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease; 2014; 42(3):973-84

Iuvone T, Esposito G, De Filippis D, Scuderi C, Steardo L; Cannabidiol: a promising drug for neurodegenerative disorders?; CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics; February 2009; 15(1):65-75\


Crippa JA, Derenusson GN, Ferrari TB, Wichert-Ana L, Duran FL, Martin-Santos R, Simões MV, Bhattacharyya S, Fusar-Poli P, Atakan Z, Santos Filho A, Freitas-Ferrari MC, McGuire PK, Zuardi AW, Busatto GF, Hallak JE; Neural basis of anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in generalized social anxiety disorder: a preliminary report; Journal of Psychopharmacology; January 2011; 25(1):121-30

Zuardi AW, Shirakawa I, Finkelfarb E, Karniol IG; Action of cannabidiol on the anxiety and other effects produced by delta 9-THC in normal subjects; Psychopharmacology; 1982;76(3):245-50

Blessing EM, Steenkamp MM, Manzanares J, Marmar CR; Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety Disorders; Neurotherapeutics; October 2015; 12(4):825-36

Schramm-Sapyta NL, Cha YM, Chaudhry S, Wilson WA, Swartzwelder HS, Kuhn CM; Differential anxiogenic, aversive, and locomotor effects of THC in adolescent and adult rats; Psychopharmacology; May 2007; 191(4):867-77


Malfait AM, Gallily R, Sumariwalla PF, Malik AS, Andreakos E, Mechoulam R, Feldmann M; The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis; PNAS; August 2000; 97(17):9561-6

Burston JJ, Sagar DR, Shao P, Bai M, King E, Brailsford L, Turner JM, Hathway GJ, Bennett AJ, Walsh DA, Kendall DA, Lichtman A, Chapman V.; Cannabinoid CB2 receptors regulate central sensitization and pain responses associated with osteoarthritis of the knee joint; PLOS One; November 2013; 8(11):e80440


Filloux FM; Cannabinoids for pediatric epilepsy? Up in smoke or real science?; Translational Pediatrics; October 2015; 4(4): 271–282.

Devinsky O, Marsh E, Friedman D, Thiele E, Laux L, Sullivan J, Miller I, Flamini R, Wilfong A, Filloux F, Wong M, Tilton N, Bruno P, Bluvstein J, Hedlund J, Kamens R, Maclean J, Nangia S, Singhal NS, Wilson CA, Patel A, Cilio MR; Cannabidiol in patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy: an open-label interventional trial; Lancet Neurology; March 2016; 15(3):270-8


Lutge EE, Gray A, Siegfried N; The medical use of cannabis for reducing morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV/AIDS; The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; April 2013; (4):CD005175

Woolridge E, Barton S, Samuel J, Osorio J, Dougherty A, Holdcroft A; Cannabis use in HIV for pain and other medical symptoms; Journal of Pain and Symptom Management; April 2005; 29(4):358-67

Ellis RJ, Toperoff W, Vaida F, van den Brande G, Gonzales J, Gouaux B, Bentley H, Atkinson JH; Smoked medicinal cannabis for neuropathic pain in HIV: a randomized, crossover clinical trial; Neuropsychopharmacology; February 2009; 34(3):672-80

Sánchez-Duffhues G, Calzado MA, de Vinuesa AG, Caballero FJ, Ech-Chahad A, Appendino G, Krohn K, Fiebich BL, Muñoz E; Denbinobin, a naturally occurring 1,4-phenanthrenequinone, inhibits HIV-1 replication through an NF-kappaB-dependent pathway; Biochemical Pharmacology; November 2008; 76(10):1240-50

Crohn’s Disease

Naftali T, Lev LB, Yablecovitch D, Half E, Konikoff FM; Treatment of Crohn’s disease with cannabis: an observational study; The Israel Medical Association Journal; August 2011; 13(8):455-8

Goyal H, Singla U, Gupta U, May E; Role of cannabis in digestive disorders; European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology; February 2017;29(2):135-143

Naftali T, Bar-Lev Schleider L, Dotan I, Lansky EP, Sklerovsky Benjaminov F, Konikoff FM; Cannabis induces a clinical response in patients with Crohn’s disease: a prospective placebo-controlled study; Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology; October 2013;11(10):1276-1280

PTSD & Stress

Marsicano G, Wotjak CT, Azad SC, Bisogno T, Rammes G, Cascio MG, Hermann H, Tang J, Hofmann C, Zieglgänsberger W, Di Marzo V, Lutz B; The endogenous cannabinoid system controls extinction of aversive memories; Nature; August 2002; 418(6897):530-4

Greer GR, Grob CS, Halberstadt AL; PTSD symptom reports of patients evaluated for the New Mexico Medical Cannabis Program; Journal of Psychoactive Drugs; January-March 2014; 46(1):73-7

Cuttler C, Spradlin A, McLaughlin RJ; A naturalistic examination of the perceived effects of cannabis on negative affect; Journal of Affective Disorders; April 2018; 235

Webb CW, Webb SM; Therapeutic Benefits of Cannabis: A Patient Survey; Hawai’i Journal of Medicine and Public Health; April 2014; 3(4): 109–111

Sleep Disorder

Babson KA, Sottile J, Morabito D; Cannabis, Cannabinoids, and Sleep: a Review of the Literature; Current Psychiatry Report; April 201; 19(4):23

Nicholson AN, Turner C, Stone BM, Robson PJ; Effect of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on nocturnal sleep and early-morning behavior in young adults; Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology; June 2004; 24(3):305-13


Fiz J, Durán M, Capellà D, Carbonell J, Farré M; Cannabis use in patients with fibromyalgia: effect on symptoms relief and health-related quality of life; PLoS One; April 2011; 6(4):e18440

Parkinson’s Disease

More SV, Choi DK; Promising cannabinoid-based therapies for Parkinson’s disease: motor symptoms to neuroprotection; Molecular Neurodegeneration; 2015; 10:17

Lotan I, Treves TA, Roditi Y, Djaldetti R; Cannabis (medical marijuana) treatment for motor and non-motor symptoms of Parkinson disease: an open-label observational study; Clinical Neuropharmacology; March/April 2014; 37(2):41-4

Multiple Sclerosis

Zajicek JP, Hobart JC, Slade A, Barnes D, Mattison PG; MUSEC Research Group; Multiple sclerosis and extract of cannabis: results of the MUSEC trial; Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. November 2012; 83(11):1125-32

Pryce G, Ahmed Z, Hankey DJ, Jackson SJ, Croxford JL, Pocock JM, Ledent C, Petzold A, Thompson AJ, Giovannoni G, Cuzner ML, Baker D; Cannabinoids inhibit neurodegeneration in models of multiple sclerosis; Brain: A Journal of Neurology; October 2003; 126(Pt 10):2191-202

Muscle Spasms

Mack A, Joy J; Marijuana as Medicine? The Science Beyond the Controversy; Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2000.

Gastrointestinal Disorder

Di Carlo G, Izzo AA; Cannabinoids for gastrointestinal diseases: potential therapeutic applications; Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs; January 2003; 12(1):39-49

Pertwee RG; Cannabinoids and the gastrointestinal tract; Gu;. June 2001;48(6):859-67

Wright KL, Duncan M, Sharkey KA; Cannabinoid CB2 receptors in the gastrointestinal tract: a regulatory system in states of inflammation; British Journal of Pharmacology; January 2008; 153(2): 263–270

Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Goyal H, Singla U, Gupta U, May E; Role of cannabis in digestive disorders; European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology; February 2017;29(2):135-143

Hornby PJ, Prouty SM; Involvement of cannabinoid receptors in gut motility and visceral perception; British Journal of Pharmacology; April 2004; 141(8):1335-45


Rhyne DN, Anderson SL, Gedde M, Borgelt LM; Effects of Medical Marijuana on Migraine Headache Frequency in an Adult Population; Pharmacotherapy; May 2016; 36(5):505-10

EI‐Mallakh RS; Marijuana and Migraine; Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain. September 1987; 27(8):442-443

Spinal Cord Injury

Wilsey B, Marcotte TD, Deutsch R, Zhao H, Prasad H, Phan A; An Exploratory Human Laboratory Experiment Evaluating Vaporized Cannabis in the Treatment of Neuropathic Pain from Spinal Cord Injury and Disease; Journal of Pain, September 2016; 17(9):982-1000

Arevalo-Martin A, Molina-Holgado E, Garcia-Ovejero D; Cannabinoids to treat spinal cord injury; Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry; January 2016; 4(64):190-9

Nausea (Vomiting)

Rock EM, Bolognini D, Limebeer CL, Cascio MG, Anavi-Goffer S, Fletcher PJ, Mechoulam R, Pertwee RG, Parker LA; Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic component of cannabis, attenuates vomiting and nausea-like behaviour via indirect agonism of 5-HT(1A) somatodendritic autoreceptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus; British Journal of Pharmacology; April 2012, 165(8):2620-34

Parker LA, Rock EM, Limebeer CL; Regulation of nausea and vomiting by cannabinoids; British Journal of Pharmacology; August 2012, 163(7):1411-22


Smith SC, Wagner MS; Clinical endocannabinoid deficiency (CECD) revisited: can this concept explain the therapeutic benefits of cannabis in migraine, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and other treatment-resistant conditions?; Neuro Endocrinology Letters; 2014; 35(3):198-201

Consroe P, Musty R, Rein J, Tillery W, Pertwee R; The perceived effects of smoked cannabis on patients with multiple sclerosis; European Neurology; 1997; 38(1):44-8


Robert S. Hepler, Ira R. Frank; Marihuana Smoking and Intraocular Pressure; JAMA; 1971; 217(10):1392

Zhan GL, Camras CB, Palmberg PF, Toris CB; Effects of Marijuana on Aqueous Humor Dynamics in a Glaucoma Patient; Journal of Glaucoma; April 2005; 14(2):175-177

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