List of Studies Used for the Strainblazer Algorithm

The Strainblazer algorithm is based on our careful evaluation of hundreds of cannabis studies, most of which we encounter regularly while writing about the health effects of cannabis. The filtering for most medical conditions is based on the findings of researchers, and not on made up facts.

Our mission is to bring real cannabis science to light and help you find the best possible strain for your condition (or symptom) with as little effort as possible from your side. If you’d like to find out more about how we recommend strains, please consult the studies below.

Depression

Cuttler C, Spradlin A, McLaughlin RJ; A naturalistic examination of the perceived effects of cannabis on negative affect; Journal of Affective Disorders; April 2018; 235
http://www.jad-journal.com/article/S0165-0327%2818%2930310-0/fulltext#

Bossong MG, van Hell HH, Jager G, Kahn RS, Ramsey NF, Jansma JM; The endocannabinoid system and emotional processing: a pharmacological fMRI study with ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol; European Neuropsychopharmacology; December 2013; 23(12):1687-97.
http://www.europeanneuropsychopharmacology.com/article/S0924-977X(13)00195-8/abstract

Denson TF, Earleywine M; Decreased depression in marijuana users; Addictive Behaviors; April 2006; 31(4):738-42.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0306460305001577

ADHD/ADD

Loflin M, Earleywine M, De Leo J, Hobkirk A; Subtypes of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and cannabis use; Substance Use and Misuse; March 2014;49(4):427-34
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/10826084.2013.841251

Milz E , Grotenhermen F; Successful Therapy of Treatment Resistant Adult Adhd With Cannabis: Experience From a Medical Practice With 30 Patients; Abstract book of the Cannabinoid Conference 2015, September 2015, Sestri Levante, Italy, page 85.
http://cannabisclinicians.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/SUCCESSFUL-THERAPY-OF-TREATMENT-RESISTANT-ADULT-ADHD-WITH-CANNABIS.pdf

Mitchell JT, Sweitzer MM, Tunno AM, Kollins SH, McClernon FJ; “I Use Weed for My ADHD”: A Qualitative Analysis of Online Forum Discussions on Cannabis Use and ADHD; May 2016; 11(5):e0156614
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4882033/

Brain Injury

Lopez-Rodriguez AB, Siopi E, Finn DP, Marchand-Leroux C, Garcia-Segura LM, Jafarian-Tehrani M, Viveros MP; CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptor antagonists prevent minocycline-induced neuroprotection following traumatic brain injury in mice; Cerebral Cortex; January 2015; 25(1):35-45
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23960212

Pazos MR, Cinquina V, Gómez A, Layunta R, Santos M, Fernández-Ruiz J, Martínez-Orgado J; Cannabidiol administration after hypoxia–ischemia to newborn rats reduces long-term brain injury and restores neurobehavioral function; Neuropharmacology; October 2012; 63(5):776-83
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0028390812002328

Mechoulam R, Panikashvili D, Shohami E; Cannabinoids and brain injury: therapeutic implications; Trends In Molecular Medicine; February 2001; 8(2):58-61
https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/185c/2a0fdbf15a0867cf00fd28eb4cce74119a9e.pdf

Ceprián M, Jiménez-Sánchez L, Vargas C, Barata L, Hind W, Martínez-Orgado J; Cannabidiol reduces brain damage and improves functional recovery in a neonatal rat model of arterial ischemic stroke; Neuropharmacology; April 2017; 116:151-159
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28012949

Pain

Manzanares J, Julian M, Carrascosa A; Role of the Cannabinoid System in Pain Control and Therapeutic Implications for the Management of Acute and Chronic Pain Episodes; Current Neuropharmacology; July 2006; 4(3): 239–257
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2430692/

Xiong W, Cui T, Cheng K, Yang F, Chen SR, Willenbring D, Guan Y, Pan HL, Ren K, Xu Y, Zhang L; Cannabinoids suppress inflammatory and neuropathic pain by targeting α3 glycine receptors; Journal of Experimental Medicine; June 2012; 209(6):1121-34
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3371734/

Johnson JR, Burnell-Nugent M, Lossignol D, Ganae-Motan ED, Potts R, Fallon MT; Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of THC:CBD extract and THC extract in patients with intractable cancer-related pain; Journal Of Pain and Symptom Management; February 2010; 39(2):167-79
http://www.jpsmjournal.com/article/S0885-3924(09)00787-8/abstract

Ware MA, Wang T, Shapiro S, Robinson A, Ducruet T, Huynh T, Gamsa A, Bennett GJ, Collet JP; Smoked cannabis for chronic neuropathic pain: a randomized controlled trial; CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal; October 2010; 182(14):E694-701
http://www.cmaj.ca/content/182/14/E694.figures-only

Alzheimer’s Disease

Ahmed A, van der Marck MA, van den Elsen G, Olde Rikkert M; Cannabinoids in late-onset Alzheimer’s disease; American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics; March 2015; 97(6):597-606
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25788394

Cao C, Li Y, Liu H, Bai G, Mayl J, Lin X, Sutherland K, Nabar N, Cai J; The potential therapeutic effects of THC on Alzheimer’s disease; Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease; 2014; 42(3):973-84
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25024327

Iuvone T, Esposito G, De Filippis D, Scuderi C, Steardo L; Cannabidiol: a promising drug for neurodegenerative disorders?; CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics; February 2009; 15(1):65-75
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1755-5949.2008.00065.x\

Anxiety

Crippa JA, Derenusson GN, Ferrari TB, Wichert-Ana L, Duran FL, Martin-Santos R, Simões MV, Bhattacharyya S, Fusar-Poli P, Atakan Z, Santos Filho A, Freitas-Ferrari MC, McGuire PK, Zuardi AW, Busatto GF, Hallak JE; Neural basis of anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in generalized social anxiety disorder: a preliminary report; Journal of Psychopharmacology; January 2011; 25(1):121-30
http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0269881110379283

Zuardi AW, Shirakawa I, Finkelfarb E, Karniol IG; Action of cannabidiol on the anxiety and other effects produced by delta 9-THC in normal subjects; Psychopharmacology; 1982;76(3):245-50
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6285406

Blessing EM, Steenkamp MM, Manzanares J, Marmar CR; Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety Disorders; Neurotherapeutics; October 2015; 12(4):825-36
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs13311-015-0387-1

Schramm-Sapyta NL, Cha YM, Chaudhry S, Wilson WA, Swartzwelder HS, Kuhn CM; Differential anxiogenic, aversive, and locomotor effects of THC in adolescent and adult rats; Psychopharmacology; May 2007; 191(4):867-77
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00213-006-0676-9

Arthritis

Malfait AM, Gallily R, Sumariwalla PF, Malik AS, Andreakos E, Mechoulam R, Feldmann M; The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis; PNAS; August 2000; 97(17):9561-6
http://www.pnas.org/content/97/17/9561.short

Burston JJ, Sagar DR, Shao P, Bai M, King E, Brailsford L, Turner JM, Hathway GJ, Bennett AJ, Walsh DA, Kendall DA, Lichtman A, Chapman V.; Cannabinoid CB2 receptors regulate central sensitization and pain responses associated with osteoarthritis of the knee joint; PLOS One; November 2013; 8(11):e80440
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24282543

Epilepsy

Filloux FM; Cannabinoids for pediatric epilepsy? Up in smoke or real science?; Translational Pediatrics; October 2015; 4(4): 271–282.
http://tp.amegroups.com/article/view/8122/8915

Devinsky O, Marsh E, Friedman D, Thiele E, Laux L, Sullivan J, Miller I, Flamini R, Wilfong A, Filloux F, Wong M, Tilton N, Bruno P, Bluvstein J, Hedlund J, Kamens R, Maclean J, Nangia S, Singhal NS, Wilson CA, Patel A, Cilio MR; Cannabidiol in patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy: an open-label interventional trial; Lancet Neurology; March 2016; 15(3):270-8
http://www.thelancet.com/journals/laneur/article/PIIS1474-4422(15)00379-8/abstract

HIV/AIDS

Lutge EE, Gray A, Siegfried N; The medical use of cannabis for reducing morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV/AIDS; The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; April 2013; (4):CD005175
http://cochranelibrary-wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD005175.pub2/full

Woolridge E, Barton S, Samuel J, Osorio J, Dougherty A, Holdcroft A; Cannabis use in HIV for pain and other medical symptoms; Journal of Pain and Symptom Management; April 2005; 29(4):358-67
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15857739

Ellis RJ, Toperoff W, Vaida F, van den Brande G, Gonzales J, Gouaux B, Bentley H, Atkinson JH; Smoked medicinal cannabis for neuropathic pain in HIV: a randomized, crossover clinical trial; Neuropsychopharmacology; February 2009; 34(3):672-80
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18688212

Sánchez-Duffhues G, Calzado MA, de Vinuesa AG, Caballero FJ, Ech-Chahad A, Appendino G, Krohn K, Fiebich BL, Muñoz E; Denbinobin, a naturally occurring 1,4-phenanthrenequinone, inhibits HIV-1 replication through an NF-kappaB-dependent pathway; Biochemical Pharmacology; November 2008; 76(10):1240-50
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18840408

Crohn’s Disease

Naftali T, Lev LB, Yablecovitch D, Half E, Konikoff FM; Treatment of Crohn’s disease with cannabis: an observational study; The Israel Medical Association Journal; August 2011; 13(8):455-8
http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/21910367

Goyal H, Singla U, Gupta U, May E; Role of cannabis in digestive disorders; European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology; February 2017;29(2):135-143
https://journals.lww.com/eurojgh/Citation/2017/02000/Role_of_cannabis_in_digestive_disorders.2.aspx

Naftali T, Bar-Lev Schleider L, Dotan I, Lansky EP, Sklerovsky Benjaminov F, Konikoff FM; Cannabis induces a clinical response in patients with Crohn’s disease: a prospective placebo-controlled study; Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology; October 2013;11(10):1276-1280
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1542356513006046

PTSD & Stress

Marsicano G, Wotjak CT, Azad SC, Bisogno T, Rammes G, Cascio MG, Hermann H, Tang J, Hofmann C, Zieglgänsberger W, Di Marzo V, Lutz B; The endogenous cannabinoid system controls extinction of aversive memories; Nature; August 2002; 418(6897):530-4
https://www.nature.com/articles/nature00839

Greer GR, Grob CS, Halberstadt AL; PTSD symptom reports of patients evaluated for the New Mexico Medical Cannabis Program; Journal of Psychoactive Drugs; January-March 2014; 46(1):73-7
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02791072.2013.873843

Cuttler C, Spradlin A, McLaughlin RJ; A naturalistic examination of the perceived effects of cannabis on negative affect; Journal of Affective Disorders; April 2018; 235
http://www.jad-journal.com/article/S0165-0327%2818%2930310-0/fulltext#

Webb CW, Webb SM; Therapeutic Benefits of Cannabis: A Patient Survey; Hawai’i Journal of Medicine and Public Health; April 2014; 3(4): 109–111
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3998228/

Sleep Disorder

Babson KA, Sottile J, Morabito D; Cannabis, Cannabinoids, and Sleep: a Review of the Literature; Current Psychiatry Report; April 201; 19(4):23
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28349316

Nicholson AN, Turner C, Stone BM, Robson PJ; Effect of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on nocturnal sleep and early-morning behavior in young adults; Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology; June 2004; 24(3):305-13
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15118485

Fibromyalgia

Fiz J, Durán M, Capellà D, Carbonell J, Farré M; Cannabis use in patients with fibromyalgia: effect on symptoms relief and health-related quality of life; PLoS One; April 2011; 6(4):e18440
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0018440

Parkinson’s Disease

More SV, Choi DK; Promising cannabinoid-based therapies for Parkinson’s disease: motor symptoms to neuroprotection; Molecular Neurodegeneration; 2015; 10:17
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25888232

Lotan I, Treves TA, Roditi Y, Djaldetti R; Cannabis (medical marijuana) treatment for motor and non-motor symptoms of Parkinson disease: an open-label observational study; Clinical Neuropharmacology; March/April 2014; 37(2):41-4
https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24614667/Cannabis_(medical_marijuana)_treatment_for_motor_and_non-motor_symptoms_of_Parkinson_disease:_an_open-label_observational_study.

Multiple Sclerosis

Zajicek JP, Hobart JC, Slade A, Barnes D, Mattison PG; MUSEC Research Group; Multiple sclerosis and extract of cannabis: results of the MUSEC trial; Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. November 2012; 83(11):1125-32
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22791906

Pryce G, Ahmed Z, Hankey DJ, Jackson SJ, Croxford JL, Pocock JM, Ledent C, Petzold A, Thompson AJ, Giovannoni G, Cuzner ML, Baker D; Cannabinoids inhibit neurodegeneration in models of multiple sclerosis; Brain: A Journal of Neurology; October 2003; 126(Pt 10):2191-202
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12876144

Muscle Spasms

Mack A, Joy J; Marijuana as Medicine? The Science Beyond the Controversy; Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2000.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK224382/

Gastrointestinal Disorder

Di Carlo G, Izzo AA; Cannabinoids for gastrointestinal diseases: potential therapeutic applications; Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs; January 2003; 12(1):39-49
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12517253

Pertwee RG; Cannabinoids and the gastrointestinal tract; Gu;. June 2001;48(6):859-67
http://gut.bmj.com/content/48/6/859.full

Wright KL, Duncan M, Sharkey KA; Cannabinoid CB2 receptors in the gastrointestinal tract: a regulatory system in states of inflammation; British Journal of Pharmacology; January 2008; 153(2): 263–270
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2219529/

Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Goyal H, Singla U, Gupta U, May E; Role of cannabis in digestive disorders; European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology; February 2017;29(2):135-143
https://journals.lww.com/eurojgh/Citation/2017/02000/Role_of_cannabis_in_digestive_disorders.2.aspx

Hornby PJ, Prouty SM; Involvement of cannabinoid receptors in gut motility and visceral perception; British Journal of Pharmacology; April 2004; 141(8):1335-45
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15100166

Migraines

Rhyne DN, Anderson SL, Gedde M, Borgelt LM; Effects of Medical Marijuana on Migraine Headache Frequency in an Adult Population; Pharmacotherapy; May 2016; 36(5):505-10
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26749285

EI‐Mallakh RS; Marijuana and Migraine; Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain. September 1987; 27(8):442-443
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1526-4610.1987.hed2708442.x

Spinal Cord Injury

Wilsey B, Marcotte TD, Deutsch R, Zhao H, Prasad H, Phan A; An Exploratory Human Laboratory Experiment Evaluating Vaporized Cannabis in the Treatment of Neuropathic Pain from Spinal Cord Injury and Disease; Journal of Pain, September 2016; 17(9):982-1000
http://www.jpain.org/article/S1526-5900(16)30072-4/fulltext

Arevalo-Martin A, Molina-Holgado E, Garcia-Ovejero D; Cannabinoids to treat spinal cord injury; Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry; January 2016; 4(64):190-9
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25805333

Nausea (Vomiting)

Rock EM, Bolognini D, Limebeer CL, Cascio MG, Anavi-Goffer S, Fletcher PJ, Mechoulam R, Pertwee RG, Parker LA; Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic component of cannabis, attenuates vomiting and nausea-like behaviour via indirect agonism of 5-HT(1A) somatodendritic autoreceptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus; British Journal of Pharmacology; April 2012, 165(8):2620-34
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21827451

Parker LA, Rock EM, Limebeer CL; Regulation of nausea and vomiting by cannabinoids; British Journal of Pharmacology; August 2012, 163(7):1411-22
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21175589

Fatigue

Smith SC, Wagner MS; Clinical endocannabinoid deficiency (CECD) revisited: can this concept explain the therapeutic benefits of cannabis in migraine, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and other treatment-resistant conditions?; Neuro Endocrinology Letters; 2014; 35(3):198-201
http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/24977967

Consroe P, Musty R, Rein J, Tillery W, Pertwee R; The perceived effects of smoked cannabis on patients with multiple sclerosis; European Neurology; 1997; 38(1):44-8
https://www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/112901

Glaucoma

Robert S. Hepler, Ira R. Frank; Marihuana Smoking and Intraocular Pressure; JAMA; 1971; 217(10):1392
https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/338934?redirect=true

Zhan GL, Camras CB, Palmberg PF, Toris CB; Effects of Marijuana on Aqueous Humor Dynamics in a Glaucoma Patient; Journal of Glaucoma; April 2005; 14(2):175-177
https://journals.lww.com/glaucomajournal/Citation/2005/04000/Effects_of_Marijuana_on_Aqueous_Humor_Dynamics_in.17.aspx